Current Political Situation in Various Countries of Asia

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Current Political Situation in

Various Countries of Asia

(Presented to the Asian Convention for Democracy and Against Imperialism organized on behalf of Asian Continental Coordination Committee of ICOR at Kathmandu on June 8-10, 2013)

– Mohan Bikram Singh

Nepal Communist Party (Mashal)

First of all we would like to convey our greetings to all guests, delegates and participants of Asian Convention organized on behalf of the Asian Continental Coordination Committee (ACCC) of the ICOR (International Coordination of Revolutionary Parties and Organizations). We also want to extend our thanks to the Preparatory Committee for taking this task into its hands and jbgnnnhjmaking it a success. We would also like to thank all political parties, organizations and individuals who have contributed much to make it a success.

Asia as a whole occupies very important place in the history from ancient time to present. At present too, various countries or regions of Asia are important focal points of the world politics. The democratic, anti-imperialist and communist movements too have very important role in this continent. We are so happy that the ACCC has taken such issues this subject for discussion at the Asian Convention. The ACCC has divided the main subject of the convention as sub-tittles:

1. Democratic struggles in the history of Asia

2. Current political sitjuation in various countries

3. Democracy in the neo-colonial context

4. Present crisis in Imperialism and the anti-imperialist movement

This paper will take only the sub-title, Current Political Situation in Various Countries of Asia. Besides, this paper will base on the subject, provide a Country Report of Nepal: So, this paper consists of two parts:jk

1.      The Current Political situation of Various Countries of Asia

2.      Current Political Situjhation of Nepal

The Convention is going to take place in Nepal. The current political situation of Nepal, at present, is very unstable, complex and in transitional phase. So, the attempt of this paper would be to give a detailed report of the current political situation of Nepal whereas it will point out the general outline of the political situation of different Asian countries. Asia is the biggest continent of world. It is almost impossible to provide a detailed report of Asia in a short paper.

We are convincedn of it that the various papers presented here and the discussion which will take place in this convention as a whole would help to understand us the situation of Asia in general and that of Nepal in particular in proper perspectives.

 

(A)

The Current Political situation of Various Countries of Asia

Asia is largest continent of the world. Along with a larger part of Russia and some part of Turkey, it has fifty-two countries. It occupy 4,38,10,582 square k. m area and the tentative population of Asia is 4,162,966,086. Geographically, it has been divided into six regions: Central Asia, West Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, East Asia and North Asia.

Asia is the cradle of many great civilizations of the world. Generally, it is supposed that there are four main cradles of human civilization in the world: Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Egypt and China. Besides these, Central Andes and Mesoamerica also regarded as the cradle sof human civilization. Among these, Mesopotamia (West Asia), Indus Valley (South’s Asia) and China (East Asia) are situated in Asia. The coastal region of the Volga River (North Asia) is also supposed to be the crasdle of Proto-Indio-European civilization. It is known that the Proto-Indio-European race has spread out in Europe and in various regions of Asia. Asia is also birthplace of the great religions of the world; the Hinduism, the Confucianism, the Buddhism, Christian, Muslim and Judaism. In fact, these religions are followed by the over-whelming population of the world. g

At present, the political situation of Asia as a whole is very complex and critical. Generally speaking, the regions or countries of Asia politically can be divided into three groups: First, the countries where socialist system existed in the past. There was socialist system in whole of North Asia (Asian part of Russia), all five countries of Central Asia and China, North Korea and Vietnam Mongolia. Second, the countries where there is the existence of monarchy or dictatorship and where there is  lackings of democratic norms and values. Mainly sThe countries of West Asia belong to this category. Third, the countries where there is the existence of bourgeoisie democratic system more or less. Many of the countries of South Asia, South East Asia and East Asia, except former socialist countries and a few countries under military rule or dictatorship are come under this category.

After the fall of socialism, the former socialist counties of Asia were arkdent to adopt capitalist economic system replacing the socialist system, but are lagging behind to adopt the norms of western democratic system or democratic system as a whole. So, the political system existing there has been turned into dictatorship at present. So, the democratic movement has become a lfundamental necessity in those countries. However, we should notice in the difference existing between the nature of the democratic movement of former socialist countries and countries of West Asia. In spite of the lack of democratic system in such former socialist nations, the remaining feudal exploitation had been almost abolished and the social or economic system has been modernized in more or less degrees. But in West Asian countries, the remaining medieval kind of social structure or feudal exploitation exists in large scale even today, though exploitation of capitalist pattern is growing more and more injhs these former socialist countries.

The autoritarian or despotic tendencies can be found even in the democratic countries of South, South East and East Asia. Even India is not exception where democratic system is supposed to have been established. And almost all of the other so called democratic countries of Asia are existed in such situation. So, a well organized democratic movement is required in all countries of Asia. People cannot use their democratic rights fully unless and until they are free economically,dand socially. That is, to strengthen democratic system, a strong movement should be generated for the economic and social freedom of people. But it is doubtful whether such achievement are possible or not within the bourgeoisie system.

Similarly, different regions or countries of Asia are involved in various wars and territorial dispuftes. Because of such phenomena human rights or peace of the continent is in crisis. In this regard, the occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq by American imperialism and its allies, Palestine and Israel conflict, Kashmir issue, South China Ssea dispute, Taiwan question etc. are of worth mention. Israel has been a great danger for not only the freedom,  life and even existence of Palestine people, but also for the peace of whole Arab world. Islamic Terrorism also is posing serious problem in West Asia. They are waging determined and uncompromising struggle against American imperialism. That should be taken as positive aspect. But their religious extremism is committing more destruction in the Muslim world, and freedom of people especially of women and it has created danger in the concept of humanity and peace of the world as a whole.

American imperialism has become a great danger for the democracy, freedom, independent economy and peace of the whole Asia. The aggression in Afghanistan and Iraq are the burning examples of how far American imperialism can go against the sovereignty,s freedom of s countries of Asia. It is because of the backing of American imperialism thatss Israel which has become a serious problem for Palestine people and whole of the Arab world. Taiwan problem is also created by American imperialism and the puppet government of Taiwan in the land of kChina exists because of the support of American imperialism. America has deliberately used Tibet as a weapon against China and to support this strategy, they have been using Dalai Lama as a pawn for decades. American imperialism and its CIA are working in a global level to weaken democratic, national liberation and communist movements and the Asia is not exception of its influence. They also use racism, regionalism and communalism to disintegrate the nationality, sovereignty and integrity of the various countries of Asia.

The Indian expansionism also has been a problem for almost all countries of South Asia in general and for Nepal in particular. Because of the Kashmir dispute, many wars were took place between India and Pakistan.  The root cause of the ksasmir dispute is India�s  denial to carry out the agreement which India herself had accepted with the mediation of UNO to give right of referendum to the people of Kashmir to decide their future. From the examples of Sikkim and Bhutan, it is not difficult to anticipate how far India can go to fulfill her expansionist objectives in the region. The former (Sikkim) was included in Indian Union terminating its sovereignty in 1975. Bhutan, a sovereign country and member of the UNO and SARCC also, is fully under the clutch of India. In this regards, the example of Fiji also is worth mention where the inflow of Indians and the right of citizenship to them in large scale has moved the original inhabitants of country in minority position. In this way, Indians  have  tried i captured power there.s. Now India is working in a planned way to turn Nepal into Sikkim through the process of Bhutan ands Fiji. We shall elaborate this aspect more in the country report of Nepal.

The main problems concerned with the countries of West Asia are Palestine dispute, religious extremism, Islamic terrorism, imperialist intervention, oil politics etc. In this way, it can be said that because of all these factors, West Asia can be taken as a centre of political turmoil in whole of the continent. Occupation of Afghanistan by American imperialism is a well known major problem of South Asia. However the people of Afghanistan have not surrendereds before aggression annd they are fighting against them.

Syria has become one of the  centres s of world politics at present. As it is so in the cases of other countries of west Asia, the democratic movement becomes a historical necessity for Syria too and that should be appreciated. But in the name of support to democratic movement, imperialist powers are making intervention there which is condemnable. In fact, the strategy of American imperialism which is being used in Syria is a part of its world strategy of imperialism to bring all the developing countries under its domination.

Asia is known as a continent where, on the one hand, feudal emperors or kings, ruled for long period of time and; exploited and suppressed upon people under feudal system; on the other hand, people had to pay much because of  their wars among them to expand their kingdoms or empire. In fact, such a long history of domination by feudalism made Asia very weak, and lag behind politically and economically too. It was only Japan which succeeded to come out of such a medieval situation and turned into a developed industrial country of Asia. In fact, almost all other countries of Asia, except the Asian section of Russia, China, Nepal and Bhutan became direct colonies of one or another imperialist power. But both China and Nepal too were turned into semi-colonies of one or another imperialist country.

A remarkable contribution of imperialism in many countries of Asia, especially where they had direct rule, was that they (imperialist powers), although in a negative way, played important role to change the condition of feudalism and to turn the medieval society or structure of the state into a modern one. The colonial rule also enabled the people of many countries to come into contact with the western countries where democratic system had developed much, people have high level of political consciousness and were enjoying human rights and freedom to a large extent.

In the beginning the patriotic kings or feudals of various countries of Aslso played important role to save the freedom of their countries. But due to weakness on their part because of their inherent feudalistic character or retrogressive thinking, backward society and undeveloped weapons, they were unable to compete with the much developed capitalistic system of the western countries. So, all the efforts of the kings or feudalss of Asian countries to safeguard the freedom of their countries was in vain and one by one they had to yield to the imperialist powers.

Asian countries are weak and underdeveloped in comparison of industrially developed imperialist countries. However, two factors came in the aid of national liberation movement against imperialism. Firstly, the contradictions among the imperialist powers themselves. Secondly, succeess of the socialist revolution in Russia and worldwide wave of communist movement. Both of these factors had much impact in the liberation movement of Asian countries too. In many countries of Asia, communist themselves came in the fore front to lead the national liberation movement. In the course of the 1

st

and 2

nd

world wars, the national liberation movement in various countries of Asia shoots up and after 2

nd

world war almost all countries of the continent came out of the direct rule of imperialism. Politically they (countries of Asia) achieved freedom, but economically they are still under the domain of imperialism.

Most of the countries, which were under the direct rule by imperialist western countries had no more to struggle to abolish monarchies as there absolute rule had already been done away by imperialist powers. So, the democratic movement in those countries became secondary in comparison to the struggle for freedom of the country. But the countries, which were not direct colonies, had to go through a long process of democratic movement. The struggle against monarchy or absolute rule in China, Nepal and some of the other countries of West Asia can be taken as examples of such situation. j

National liberation of colonized countries, in real sense, can be achieved by uncompromising and determined struggles against imperialism and that is not possible under bourgeoisie leadership which tends to compromise with imperialism. So, it requires the leadership of a true Marxist-Leninist Party. In other words, only success of New-Democratic or Sbnocialist Revolution can liberate a country from the dmmomination of imperialism in real sense.

Governments in Asia, like in other  parts of the world, have a tendency to use more and more nuclear power to meet the shortage of oil and gas and to avoid negative impact of carbon pollution. But the Fukushima nuclear disaster of Japan on 11 March 2011 has shown that the nuclear power is not in the so much favor of human kind. Fukushima has also shown that nuclear power is not always under the control of human being. Human error or sometime the mechanical errors or natural catastrophe such as earthquake, Tsunami etc. might bring the blast of nuclear plants. And bring unlimited troubles as in Fukushima. So, it has been very important to stop or destroy the nuclear plants all over the world along with the Asian nations.

China is a world power possessing huge nuclear plants and weapons in Asia. India and Pakistan also have nuclear plants and weapon in large scale. Besides these many countries in Asia, North Korea, Israel, Iran, Indonesia, South Korea, and Taiwan are also on the way of building nuclear plants. So, the nuclear power is posing more and more danger to the whole of Asia. So, a worldwide movement against nuclear power has become a most important task in the present world. After Fukusima the movement in Europe to destroy all nuclear plants and weapons has become many times stronger. But in Asia the anti-nuclear movement is more or less neglected. All peace loving forces of Asia should take this issue seriously in hand. However, considering upon such threat posed by nuclear power, ICOR has decided to organize movement against that in world level and has organized worldwide signature campaign against the nuclear danger together with against the destruction of environment.

The communist movement in Asia has played very vital role. China was the first country to establish socialist system in Asia. Later, many other countries of the continent like North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Mongolia and Cambodia have taken the same path. The communists have come in power in many other countries, prominent among them being Nepal and India. But they had come to power either as a part of coalition bourgeoisie government or under the bourgeoisie political syshtem without bringing any radical changes in the existing system. So, in spite of the participation of communists in various governments, which cannot be taken as the examples of the establishments of communist power. many other countries of Asiar), aya. The communist movement in Burma and Malaya (present Malaysia),as almost come tn end. But it is strong enough even today in Philippines.

The reality is that at present the communist movement in the world as a whole is very weak and in defensive position. In a way it can be said that it is struggling hard  to keep its existence. But in spite of the serious crisis that it is facing in world, its objective basis is well established. The only problem is that, firstly, its subjective condition is very weak and, secondly, the various types of deviations and revisionist thinking have distorted its ideological aspect much. The collapse of socialist system in different countries of the world also was caused because subjective weaknesses or mistakes in their working style. So, to strengthen the position of communist movement in Asia together with the ICM as a whole, efforts should be made to reinforce subjective condition and to rebuild ideology on the correct Marxist-Leninist lines.

 

 

 

 

(B)

Country Report : Nepal

Current Political Situation of Nepal

Nepal, with 1,47,181 Square k.m area and 2.6 million population is a small, least developed and land locked country. It can be said that it lies in the centre of Asia. It is between the two big countries of Asia, China in the North and India in the East South and West. This geo-political situation (position) has much influenced in the history, economic condition, life style, culture and politics of Nepal for centuries.

Nepal wAs expanded out to various small states before Prithivi Narayan Shah who inaugurate the foundation of present integrated Nepal in 1768 A.D. , The country was ruled by the Shah Kings up to 1846 A.D. After that Nepal went through Ranutocratic rule for one hundred and four years. The Rana rule was abolished in 1951. But after a decade in 1960, King Mahendra snatched the power of government and established absolute rule which existed till 1990. The united people�s movement succeeded to abolish the absolute rule of the King and restore multi-party system. But the King Gyanendra took power into his hands and established his direct rule. However, the united movement of 2006, in history, which is known as a April Movement 2006, not only restored parliament system, but also after the election of constitutional assembly(CA) abolished monarchy and estashed the republic.

The election of the CA took place in 2008. The period of two years was given to make the constitution. But task could not be completed within fixed period for that, the period of CA was extended time and again for two years more. But the constitution could not be drafted within the deadline of four years and at last the CA was dissolved on June 28, 2012 without making the constitution. Then the major political parties tried to make a consensus government to conduct the election of the CA again. But such a government could not be materialized as the major political parties could not agree on the question of the leadership of the government. At last, four major political parties agreed to make a government under the leadership of the executive Chief Justice of S.C, Khilaraj Regmi and give him the responsibility of conducting the election of the CA. A High Level Political Committee (HLPC) of four parties was composed to work as an advisory body of the government. It is in such a background that we have to think about the current political situation of the country.

The political situation of Nepal is very complex and critical at present. The present complex and critical situation began after the dissolution of the Constitutional Assembly (CA) on June 28, 2012. The dissolution of the CA without making the constitution itself was a serious setback and was result of the series of fallacious policies and roles on the part of the major political parties or organizations for years in general and during the period of four years of the CA in particular. By major political parties or organizations of Nepal we mean: United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), UMaoist in short, United Marxist-Leninist Party (UML), Nepali Congress (NC) and Madhesi Janaadhikar Forum (Loktantrik), a regional political organizations of Tarai/Madhesh. These parties or organizations have been playing decisive role to decide the political c*ourse of country for many years. Even when the CA existed they used to take all decisions for CA bypassing or minimizing the role of CA.

In fact it was the issue of the federalism or the structure of that (federalism), which caused the dissolution the CA without making the constitution. In Nepal, all political parties or organizations except the NCP (Mashal) and National People’s Front(NPF) support federalism. But all politicaL parties or organizations of Nepal supporting federalism are divided on the modality of that. The difference among the major political parties or organizations reached to climax on the question of reconstruction of the state in general and that of reconstruction of the Pradeshes (Zones) in particular. However, on May 15, 2012 UMaoist, UML and NC agreed to build the Pradeshes on multi racial basis with the Forum remaining abstain. People had hoped that such an agreemebt would pave the way to make the constitution. But such an agreement was opposed by all racial organizations demanding that the Pradeshes should be built on the basis of single identity basis. Then after UMaoist also withdrew from May 15 agreement. As May 15 agreement was broken, the CA was dissolved without making the constitution.

The decision to make Regmi the head of the government decision was, firstly, against the well-established democratic principles of separation of power of various organs of the government. Secondly, it threatened the very existence of multi-party system, and, lastly, it indicated the failure of the political parties. The decision to hand over the power to a non-political person was retrogressive act and it threatens the very existence of multiparty system and republic too. The decision of the four parties to hand over the power to the CJ has been widely criticized in the country.

We have been emphasizing on three major important tasks of the country at present. Firstly, the making of the constitution and institutionalize the republic. Secondly, defense of the nationality and, thirdly, opposition of the federalism. However, for the time being the most important political question of the country has been the election of the CA. Generally, it is supposed that the election of the CA at least will rescue the country out of the situation created by the dissolution of the CA and formation of a government on non-party basis. The Regmi government is formed with the sole objective of conducting the election. But there is ground to doubt if the election of the CA will be held in time? As the government had not been able to fix the date of election even three months after coming to power, the doubt about the election of the CA is intensifying more and more.

Even if the election of the CA takes place anyhow; firstly, it is doubtful whether the CA would succeed to make the constitution or not. The policies and role of the major political parties, which had caused the former CA to fail to make the constitution, exist even at present. It is a known fact that the CA, because of the divergent views of major political parties on the federalism, had failed to make the constitution. There has not been any change in the views of them even now. In such a background, there is much possibility of the past history being repeated on the question of making constitution. Secondly, even if the constitution is made, there is not guarantee that it would be republic or democratic one because of the role of the racist and regionalist forces.

Federalism is not appropriate for a small, undeveloped, economically weak and a country surrounded by Indian expansionism by three sides. Besides it, federalism in Nepal is being presented in most distorted form. Many of the supporters of federalism in Nepal emphasize the regional states to be built on racial basis, right of self-determination, right of self-determination with the right of separation, one Pradesh in single Madesh, multinationalism and racial prerogative etc. Such symptoms are not found in all of the countries of the world where federalism has succeeded. In fact, the concept of federalism in Nepal is part of strategy of Indian expansionism and western imperialism. That is why, it represents more with the inherent of foreign interests of the western imperialism Indian expansionism rather than with the national interests of Nepal. Such a strategy of federalism of Indian expansionism or western imperialist countries would shake the very foundation of not only the nationality, sovereignty and integrity te of Nepal, but also will threaten the very existence of Nepal as an independent country. Even today the politics of federalism is not only dividing more and more people of the country on the basis of racism and regionalism.  Some of the supporters of federalism are raising voice for independent states in several region of Nepal.

The existing unitary system of Nepal is of reactionary nature as it is of feudal and centralized type. So, for the greater interests of the country that should be abolished. But federalism is not a right alternative of that. So, the existing system should be replaced by an unitary system based upon democratic decentralization and local self-rule.

The question of citizenship has been a crucial national question in the politics of Nepal. It has been strategy of Indian expansionism to make increasing number of Indians as the citizens of Nepal. Nepal has open boarder with India. So, Indians can come to Nepal without any restriction. In last a few decades millions of Indians have entered into Nepal. The Madhesbadi claim that all of Indians coming or living in Nepal are Nepalis and those should be given citizenship right. Due to pressure of Indian government and Madhesbadi, the various government of Nepal have been taking decision to loosen the laws concerned with the citizenship rights, and that has been providing more and more opportunities to Indians to become citizens of Nepal. If we do not check such process soon, a large number of Indians will become citizens of Nepal and the real citizen of Nepal will become minority. Needless to say, such a process will bring Nepal in the condition of Fiji.

A few years before, the government had decided to provide citizenship on the basis of birth. To prove that a person was born in Nepal, it was not requested to produce any birth certificate, but was enough to be approved by a few witnesses that he was born in Nepal. Taking benefit from this weak provision of the law, a large number of Indians became citizens of Nepal. The decision to give citizens on the basis of birth was wrong and was widely harmful to our country.

Later, the government had taken a decision that all the descendants born before a person having achieved citizenship right on the basis of birth would be natural born citizen. Such a decision of the government was against the law of the country which did not allow citizenship to a descendant born before any of their parents became citizens. So, the decision of the government was turned down by Supreme Court. But in the course of reaching understanding to make CJ head of the government, it was agreed by four parties that all the descendants born before their parents, would be natural born citizen and the on the basis of such subversive decision of the four parties the President issued ordinance. Formerly, the court also had given the verdict that only a citizen would have voting right. But after the suggestion of the four parties by the ordinance issued by the President, persons having no citizenship right also on the basis of other documents or papers would have right to vote.

By both of these decisions mentioned above, large number of Indians would be citizens of Nepal and would get voting right even if they are not citizens. As a result of such a conspiracy of citizenship in the long run, Nepali would be in minority in our own country. Even after millions of Indians have become citizens of Nepal, the Madhes badi parties are claiming that there are still 4 million people to become citizens of Nepal. Because of open border with India, many Indian people become the Nepali citizens. In such condition, additional 4, 5, or 10 million people would be left to become citizen of Nepal. Anyone can guess where such circumstance would lead Nepal to?

The question of nationality has become a very pivotal question of country. But before taking the subject of nationality, we should have a clear understanding about the problem of Tarai Madhes and Madhesbadi. The American imperialism and globalization is posing danger to the independence and economy of the all developing and least developed countries of the world as a whole and Nepal too is not exception from that. Together with the problem concerned with imperialism and globalization, the national question of Nepal has its some special characteristics. In this context three aspects related with the national question of Nepal deserve special consideration.

Firstly, main threat to the nationality of Nepal is posed by Indian expansionism. From the time the British rule come to an end in India, the ruling class of India have been trying to bring Nepal into her domination. In 1951, when an armed struggle against the autocratic Rana rule was going on in Nepal, the then deputy prime-minister and home minister of India Shardar Patel had put forth the view that Nepal should be brought into Indian Union like Hyderabad of Nizam. In the last more than six decades, Indian ruling classes have been trying to carry out the policy of Patel in one or another way. However, refraining from going into details of the history of expansionist policies and activities of Indian expansionism towards Nepal in last more than half century, this paper will be confined to touch only a few current topics.

Indian army is still in Kalapani, a far western part of Nepal. Patriotic forces or people of Nepal for decades have been raising voice to bring Kalapani region back to Nepal. India claims that Kalapani belongs to its territory.  But such a claim of India is not based on reality. Kalapani lies in the East of Kali River and according to authentic maps and documents, the land east of Kali River belongs to Nepal as Kalapani lies Eastern part of Kali River. So, the claim of India on Kalipani is baseless.

Besides Kalapani, India is encroaching the border of Nepal from East to West in several parts. Many pillars, known as Junge Pillars, built between Nepal and India are being shifted from South to North to capture the land of Nepal. India is building various canals near to the boarder of Nepal which are causing flood in many parts of Nepal. According to International law, a neighboring country has no right to make such canals near the border of neighboring country. India has not yet signed on international transit treaty. Nepal is only a landlocked country in the border of India. Reluctance of India to sign on the treaty is guided by her intention to keep on pressure upon Nepal to compel her (Nepal) to accept her (India) wrong demands.

Nepal is a second largest country of the world in water resources after Brazil. In the last six decades numerous unequal treaties on water resources of Nepal have been accomplishe`d between Nepal and India. In fact, in this way India intends to bring all rivers or water recourses of Nepal into the control of herself. As it has been explained before, India has been trying for decades to make Nepal second Fiji by inflow of Indian in Nepal and making them citizens of Nepal in increasing numbers.

Secondly, the federalism combined with racism, right of self-determination, right of self-determination with right of separation, one Pradesh in single Madhes, multi-nationalism, racial prerogative etc also endanger the nationality, sovereignty and national integrity of the country.

Thirdly, it is found that many of the political parties or the organization of Nepal to secure their position in the government tend to serve the expansionist interest of India or adopt Por-Indian policy even to the extent of giving up national interest.  Such a role on the part of political parties or organizations has helped much foreign powers to interfere in Nepal and to weaken the nationality of the country.

To understand the political situation of Nepal properly, it is very important to have a correct approach to the situation of Tarai/Madhes and Madhesbadi political organizations existing there. Along with other several classes, regions and  sections of people of  Nepal, the people of Tarai/Madhesh too are being exploited or suppressed under feudal rule of Nepal. So, a huge number of the people of Tarai region are facing exploitation and suppression for long period of time. So, the struggle of all the organizations or interest group of Tarai against such exploitation is necessary and appropriate and we must support such struggle. But a handful political forces or organizations, supported by Indian expansionism, have been trying to divert the just dissatisfaction and struggle of the people of Tarai to serve the interests of Indian expansionism. In fact, during a few decades, these organizations have succeeded much to influence the policies of the government and the leader of the major political parties to a large extent according to the interest of the Indian expansionism. Such a success on their part is due to the back support of Indian expansionism. When the major political parties or organizations of the country are divided among themselves, they cannot form a government without the support of Madhes Badi organizations. Taking undue benefit of such a division among the major political parties, they have succeeded to compel them to accept of their erroneous demands contrary to greater national interests. It was in such a background that they had succeeded to compel the major political parties to accept their demand of federalism which had never been the demand of the people of Nepal, not to speak of any of the communist organizations in the whole history of the communist movement of Nepal.

In this context, we want to clarify two points at a time. Firstly, the people of Tarai are exploited by feudals or landlords belonging both Tarai and hillside. But the Madhesbadi make demarcation on regional basis opposing all people belonging to hills and safeguarding all kinds of exploitation conducted by landlords of Tarai. In the CA, they had gone to the extent of opposing land reform bill. So, their main purpose is not to eliminate the exploitation or suppression upon the people, but keep on it. Secondly, we make demarcation between Madhesi and Madhesbadi. We do not oppose all Madhesi, but support the just struggle of all people or organizations of Tarai/Madhes. But unlike Madhesi, Madhesbadi are the hand full persons or organization whose sole objective is to serve the Indian expansionism and we adopt uncompromising line of opposition to them.

Now the whole country has been moved by an issue which seems personal at first look, but which is very dangerous in essence. The issue is concerned with Lokman Singh Karki. This issue is more important and dangerous in the trend manifested by Karki than the person himself. He was Chief Secretary of the government during the absolute rule of in King Gyanendra. The Raymajhi Commission (RC), a commission appointed under a Judge to investigate into the abuse of power and suppressive measures upon the people by government personnel during the April Movement 2006, has concluded that Karki was responsible for repression upon the people, abuse of power and misuse of national property. And RC had suggested to the government to dismiss him from the post he held and to make him unworthy of any government post in future. The same person has been appointed as the head of the CIAA (The Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority), a highly sensible constitutional body to investigate into the abuse of power and corruption by the government personnel or politicians.

The Karki�s issue has been very controversial national question of the country at present and that has been criticizing by a huge mass of the country along with the different political patries too. As it is widely reported in the media of the country, the proposal to assign Karki as the head of the CIAA in the main was the proposal of the Indian government. What is the purpose of India behind it? However, time will make clear what was their real intention behind it.

At last, we would like to make a few remarks on the communist movement of Nepal. The communist movement of Nepal besides having important place in the political history of Nepal, has become a burning question of world politics too. There are many controversial question concerns with history, character, role and the police of the various organizations claiming themselves as true communist parties of Nepal. But we think, present paper is not a proper place to evaluate of all these controversies. Similarly, we would not discuss here by making demarcation on which of the organizations are real communist or not.That requires a detailed discussion .We desist from taking the question here.

Regardless of the question, whether any organization of Nepal is the real communist or not, we would prefer to take this subject what should be role of any organization claiming itself communist party from the Marxist Leninist point of view in the present historical condition of Nepal. Both strategy and tactics have very remarkable relation and both of those are interlinked. But in spite of this, we should not take both of these as one and we should be very careful to make demarcation between them.in the same time to maintain balance or co-ordination between both of these.

There is the divergent view among the organizations claiming themselves communist on basic or strategic program. We are in the favor of New Democratic Revolution, whereas some other organizations believe on socialist program, multi-party democracy, democracy of twenty first century. Reserving our right to put forth our views those divergent views or make criticism on each other, for the time being, we should have clear understanding on the question of tactical line at present.

In spite of differences among various organizations claiming themselves communist, all of these organizations agree on the point that the radical change should be made on existing political, social or economic system. But the view of all the organization is not the same on the question of radical change in the existing system. But what should be understood by the radical change in the existing system? The existing system has two contradictory aspects. Both of these aspects are interrelationship and contradiction too in the same time.

The two contradictory aspects of existing system are feudalism and the capitalist system. In the Western developed countries, capitalism or bourgeois democratic system has already been established. But in our country capitalist system still is still in very low level of development. In other words, feudal system is decaying and the capitalist system is on the process of developing. On the political side, the multi-party system and republic is still on the process of being established. The political, economic, social or cultural aspects of remaining feudalism are still strong. So, the possibility of restoration of monarchy cannot be fully ruled out. So our policy should be to concentrate our attack on feudalism and all efforts to revive monarchy.

In such a background, in the name of radical change in the existing system, if we take into hands to destroy the bourgeois system itself or in other words, bourgeois political system or republic too; it would have negative impact on our struggle against feudalism and monarchy. As a part of our strategy, we have to fight to replace the capitalist system by revolutionary system. But at present we should concentrate our effort to strengthen the bourgeois democratic system or republic. We should not have any doubt on it that in spite of its bourgeoisie limitation in presents historical condition. We should do our best to preserve whatever achievements we have achieved by the democratic movement April 2006 and consolidate those although keeping on our efforts to struggle to fight for  higher and revolutionary goals,

The Marxist Leninists while keeping on their efforts to prepare subjective condition or ground to achieve strategic objectives. At present we should decide policies or line taking into account the existing historical and objective conditions. In this context, the principle propounded by Lenin is worth mention which emphasizes on it that communists should decide their line action  by making concrete analysis of the concrete situation. Mao also in his famous work, On Practice gives emphases to take care of the concrete condition while deciding line of action at present. Such a Marxist-Marxist approach on the correct evaluation of existing historical and the objective condition does not leave any doubt on it that in spite of bourgeois limitation of the multi-party system, republic or election of the CA, we should adopt line of action to make all of these succeed. The success or failure of such tasks will decides the future course of the country whether we go forward  or backward?

All these tasks mentioned above are basic agenda of the bourgeois political parties also. But at present, communist should also take all these tasks in their hands because they cannot go ahead or, in other words their revolution cannot go ahead unless and until these tasks are completed. So, it has been historical necessity of the country that not only all Marxist- Leninist or organizations that have inclination to that, but all political forces of the country supporting multi -party system, republic or the election of the CA should come together to achieve or consolidate those objectives. The democratic movements of 1990 and 2006 against retrogression have got success because of the united movement of both communist and non communist forces.  Achievements of those movements are still to be consolidated. So, it is historical demand of the country that all those forces should keep on their unity although reserving their right of struggling on themselves on the subject they defer in democratic way.

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